The Turkish Süper Lig side confirmed the news after a successful medical with the 29-year-old defender.
The experienced centre back played 32 games for Alanyaspor, helping the club to a seventh-placed finish.
Caulker took to Twitter to express his appreciation to Alanyaspor fans.
“Thank you very much to Alanyaspor and Alanyaspor fans for everything. You’ve always had my back and made me feel like a member of your family. You gave me a chance. I will never forget what you did for me. I wish you success.”
In the statement made by the yellow-dark blue club, “Our club has signed an agreement with the English player Steven Caulker for a 2+1 season. We wish him many years of success. Welcome to Fenerbahçe.”
Caulker is of Sierra Leonean descent through his grandfather and of Scottish descent through a grandmother.
He won his first cap for England just before age 21 in November 2012.
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